New interactive map shows the germs at your local NYC subway stop! Fun… and scary!! #science

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Check out this awesome interactive map of the bacteria in New York City’s subway system (from the Wall Street Journal)!! The map is one of the results of a huge project looking at bacteria and other germs and microbiology in the City’s transit system! Above I took a screenshot of the map for the subway station next to Columbia Presbyterian Hospital at 168th St, including 108 bacteria that can cause all sorts of problems – including antibiotic resistant bacteria! This is a super fun tool…. unless you’re a germaphobe, in which case it is horrifying  :/

Every day, New York City’s 5.5 million commuters seed the city subways with bacteria from the food they eat, the pets or plants they keep, and their shoes, sneezes and unwashed hands.

For the first time, researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College sampled DNA in New York City’s 466 open subway stations. They found genetic material from 15,152 different species, most of them harmless or unidentified. Almost half the DNA belonged to bacteria. No two subway stations were exactly the same, and the research continues.

So far, the scientists have identified 67 bacteria species associated with disease and infections. Here are details on a few of the bacteria found.

MORE SCIENCE. LESS FEAR! – Sloan Kettering ad campaign should take over as a meme #mynewmantra

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Over the weekend I rode on a NYC subway train with ads that are THE BEST THING EVER. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in NYC had ads all over the train with different statements about treating cancer (see above), plus the slogan ‘More Science. Less Fear.’ While the Sloan Kettering ads are obviously focusing this slogan on scientific research for cancer treatment, I think this slogan should be applied much more broadly. Can we make it a viral meme?

Does ebola have you scared? More Science. Less Fear!

Worried about climate change? More Science. Less Fear!

etc etc etc.

Rodent Problems? Awesome study of New York City rats finds disease causing bacteria and viruses! #science

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A study published in mBio (shout out for OpenAccess!) found that rats in New York City are very, very, very ‘dirty.’ The authors (Shout out to Columbia!) analyzed the pathogens carried by 133 rats using high-throughput genetic sequencing, and discovered that NYC rats carry many bacteria and viruses that can cause human disease! Press release here.

We found that these rats are infected with bacterial pathogens known to cause acute or mild gastroenteritis in people, including atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coliClostridium difficile, and Salmonella enterica, as well as infectious agents that have been associated with undifferentiated febrile illnesses, including Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformisLeptospira interrogans, and Seoul hantavirus. We also identified a wide range of known and novel viruses from groups that contain important human pathogens, including sapoviruses, cardioviruses, kobuviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepaciviruses.

That’s not good. Now, I’ll only be thinking about all of these pathogens when I’m waiting on the subway platform and look down to see the most common NYC wildlife under the tracks. Guess we should all be paying a little more attention to the diseases that these rats are carrying around all over our city.

Our findings indicate that urban rats are reservoirs for a vast diversity of microbes that may affect human health and indicate a need for increased surveillance and awareness of the disease risks associated with urban rodent infestation.

For all of the curious minds like me, you have to ask yourself… where did they get these rats? and how did they catch them? First off, the rats were humanely euthanized after being trapped. Below are the methods from the paper describing the rat collection.

The preliminary nature of this study and the significant complexities involved in trapping rats indoors in NYC necessitated an approach of convenience sampling. An effort was made to target neighborhoods likely to be impacted by the presence of rats, specifically those with high rodent and human density or a high probability of rodent-human interaction. Five sites were selected in midtown and lower Manhattan, comprised of three high-density housing complexes, one very large indoor mixed-use public space (transportation, food service, retail, and commercial), and one small urban park in a densely populated area. The residential sites are on blocks of average density for Manhattan and below-average median income (64). The mixed-use public space is in a neighborhood notable for an exceptionally high daytime population size and density, and the park was chosen based both on its location (adjacent to the residential sites) and high block density.

For extra fun, check out this video about the study from Slate!